While these two Human Brain Projects have made some provision for oversight of neuroethics within the projects, it is extremely important that the key areas are addressed outright. These include: issues of transparency; issues of consent; safety of neuroimaging techniques; use of large databases; security of personal databases containing e. These include amphetamine salts Adderall , methylphenidate Ritalin and modafinil Provigil. It is important to take the lead in determining the long-term safety and efficacy of these drugs in healthy people in order to avoid harms.
Another concern is the purchase of these drugs via the Internet when the long-term safety is unknown, when the quality of the product is questionable, and when individuals do not take advice from a medical practitioner as to whether these drugs are counter-indicated in their particular case. The impact of the widespread use of these drugs on society, including social and distributive justice, should also be evaluated. Other means of enhancement, such as transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS are currently being marketed and may be used after purchase on healthy children or adolescents whose brains are still in development.
Currently, the area of neurotechnology is advancing very rapidly. Issues of neural implants, robotics in medicine, healthcare and teaching, and nanotechnology convergence with the brain have a number of ethical concerns which need addressing immediately. The safety of these new neurotechnologies has not been fully examined, for example, in the case of nanoparticles which can pass the blood brain barrier there is the potential of neurotoxicity.
It is possible, given the dearth of caregivers for the elderly infirm and especially those with dementia, that robots will become rapidly widely used. Robots may be used in rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients.
Neuroethics: the institutionalization of ethics in neuroscience
There are also robots being developed for social interaction with elderly and demented individuals, and for those with brain disorders, such as autism. New advances in this area may be beneficial to society, creating greater wellbeing and entrepreneurial opportunities. Increasingly, neuroimaging is being used in courts for the purposes of providing supporting evidence for the lack of intent or diminished responsibility see e.
To what extent can the person be held accountable in the case of traumatic brain injury or brain abnormalities, and brain disorders such as untreated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD or addiction? For example, there is evidence to indicate that among patients with ADHD, rates of criminality were lower during periods when they were receiving ADHD medication. These findings raise the possibility that the use of medication reduces the risk of criminality among patients with ADHD.
Original Research ARTICLE
To what extent are ADHD criminals responsible for their crimes if they have not received diagnosis and treatment? The effects of poverty on the brain are extremely important, particularly as we now know from the impressive research conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health that our brains are still in development through late adolescence into early young adulthood. Therefore, the effects of poor nutrition on the brain may be difficult to fully reverse in adulthood.
In the developing world, severe malnutrition including inadequate calories has been clearly demonstrated to stunt not only physical stature, but also intellectual ability as measured by IQ. Furthermore, the developing brain appears particularly vulnerable to environmental influences during this time, ranging from widely addictive substances such as nicotine and alcohol, and more speculatively, to highly rewarding activities such as gaming and internet use. It is of the highest importance not to accept pre-existing biases that tend to favour or disfavour recent medical marijuana or recreational marijuana laws, but for the United States Government to fund good observational experiments to determine the degree to which marijuana creates dependence in young people, whether incident cases of schizophrenia increase, whether there are significant changes in performance, and whether there are increases or decreases in incidence of anxiety disorders and depression.
Responsibility, moral agency and the law Addiction to substances of abuse and to gambling.
Invasive techniques for treatment of brain disorders Deep brain stimulation DBS , especially for psychiatric disorders. Special issues of children and adolescents Brain development in children and adolescents. Neuroscience, biologics and psychopharmacology in the context of the military Issues of transparency.
Morality and Social Cognition Neurobiology and legal issues e. Autistic Spectrum Disorders, traumatic brain injury. Brain injury and vegetative state, disorders of consciousness False hopes.
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Table of contents
This chapter explores uses of brain science for purposes of national security intelligence and defense, discusses the neuroethical issues that these approaches foster, and posits ways that such ethical concerns can be addressed. The chapter begins with a historical overview of military attempts to employ the tools and techniques of brain and cognitive science, and illustrates ethical problems generated by these attempts. It then focuses on the ways that ethical systems and approaches might be utilized or limited in neuroscience and neurotechnology for military and security operations.
With recognition of the global trends and the power dynamics that such scientific capacity can yield, the chapter emphasizes the importance of neuroethical preparedness and provides a novel paradigm for neuroethical risk assessment and mitigation. The authors of this chapter offer their insights through their perspectives as American scholars engaged not only in American issues, but as scholars engaged through collaboration and cooperation on the global stage.
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- Combating Trafficking in Persons: A Handbook for Parliamentarians (United Nations Office at Vienna).
- Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.
- 1. Introduction.
- Chemistry: Matter and Change, Spanish Resources.
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