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Furthermore, when deciding about energy and transport policies, their appraisal uses monetized estimations of the environmental and health impacts of the consequences of these decisions.

Air Quality Integrated Assessment: A European Perspective (ebook)

Starting with the definition of a policy scenario, emissions of pollutants to air, water and soil are quantified, then available exposure-response-relationships are used to quantify health impacts. Chronic mortality occurring after long term exposure or with latency is expressed in reduced life expectancy or life years lost rather than number of cases. Results are time and space dependent, i. To be able to add or compare health risks with each other and with other damage categories, e. In the paper this methodology is described, especially the use of concentration-response-relationships and exposure-response-relationships.

The features that this relationships should have to be useful for integrated assessments are described. One major contributor to impacts is PM, however uncertainties and knowledge gaps about which fraction of PM is how harmful exist. Furthermore, the role of NO 2 is unclear and co-factors and conglomerations are under investigation. Thus sensitivity analyses with different assumptions have to be made. This is shown for two policy relevant analyses: 1 future electricity generation: to identify the most promising technologies for electricity generation, the total internal plus external costs including monetized health impacts of emissions of pollutants from the whole life cycle are estimated.

In this case, the variation of the ERF does not provoke major changes in the ranking of the technologies. If, according to the WHO recommendation, all anthropogenic primary and secondary PM is treated equally, then measuring like reducing ammonia emissions from manure and fertilizer use become efficient. On the other hand, the use of particulate filters in Diesel automobiles is only efficient, if soot is more toxic than other PM species. The latter example shows, that epidemiological studies should be designed in such a way, that statements about the impact of different PM mixtures become possible, eventually this could be supported by carrying out toxicological studies with varying mixtures instead of single species.

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A Framework for Integrated Assessment Modelling | treadangasu.tk

Subscribe Register Login. Your Name: optional. Your Email:. Finally, there is uncertainty regarding future potential adaptation effects into the twenty-first century. WHO, a. Accessed 27 May Ren C, Tong S. Health effects of ambient air pollution — recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges. Environ Health. ISBN —0— Air quality in Europe - report. ISBN: —92— Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, ; a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study Recommendations for concentration—response functions for cost—benefit analysis of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

Research report Boston: Health Effects Institute; Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.


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Long- term ozone exposure and mortality. New Engl J Med.

1. Introduction

Pre-industrial to end 21st century projections of tropospheric ozone from the atmospheric chemistry and climate model Intercomparison project ACCMIP. Atmos Chem Phys. Jacobson, MZ. Climate change challenges and opportunities for Global Health. J Amer Med Assoc. Ozone photochemistry and elevated isoprene during the UK heatwave of august Atmos Environ. European surface ozone in the extreme summer J Geophys Res. Modelling surface ozone during the heat-wave in the UK.

Mechanisms responsible for the build-up of ozone over south East England during the august heatwave. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effect. Stedman JR. The predicted number of air pollution related deaths in the UK during the august heatwave. The impact of the heat wave on daily mortality in England and Wales and the use of rapid weekly mortality estimates.

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Euro Surveill. Air pollution related deaths during the heat wave in the Netherlands. The relation between temperature, ozone, and mortality in nine French cities during the heat wave of Environ Health Perspect. Beniston M. The heat wave in Europe: a shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophys Res Lett.


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