Furthermore, when deciding about energy and transport policies, their appraisal uses monetized estimations of the environmental and health impacts of the consequences of these decisions.
Air Quality Integrated Assessment: A European Perspective (ebook)
Starting with the definition of a policy scenario, emissions of pollutants to air, water and soil are quantified, then available exposure-response-relationships are used to quantify health impacts. Chronic mortality occurring after long term exposure or with latency is expressed in reduced life expectancy or life years lost rather than number of cases. Results are time and space dependent, i. To be able to add or compare health risks with each other and with other damage categories, e. In the paper this methodology is described, especially the use of concentration-response-relationships and exposure-response-relationships.
The features that this relationships should have to be useful for integrated assessments are described. One major contributor to impacts is PM, however uncertainties and knowledge gaps about which fraction of PM is how harmful exist. Furthermore, the role of NO 2 is unclear and co-factors and conglomerations are under investigation. Thus sensitivity analyses with different assumptions have to be made. This is shown for two policy relevant analyses: 1 future electricity generation: to identify the most promising technologies for electricity generation, the total internal plus external costs including monetized health impacts of emissions of pollutants from the whole life cycle are estimated.
In this case, the variation of the ERF does not provoke major changes in the ranking of the technologies. If, according to the WHO recommendation, all anthropogenic primary and secondary PM is treated equally, then measuring like reducing ammonia emissions from manure and fertilizer use become efficient. On the other hand, the use of particulate filters in Diesel automobiles is only efficient, if soot is more toxic than other PM species. The latter example shows, that epidemiological studies should be designed in such a way, that statements about the impact of different PM mixtures become possible, eventually this could be supported by carrying out toxicological studies with varying mixtures instead of single species.
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A Framework for Integrated Assessment Modelling | treadangasu.tk
Subscribe Register Login. Your Name: optional. Your Email:. Finally, there is uncertainty regarding future potential adaptation effects into the twenty-first century. WHO, a. Accessed 27 May Ren C, Tong S. Health effects of ambient air pollution — recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges. Environ Health. ISBN —0— Air quality in Europe - report. ISBN: —92— Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, ; a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study Recommendations for concentration—response functions for cost—benefit analysis of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide.
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